The following Glossary defines some of the key terms used in this research.

Respondent = any student who began the survey


Cohort = respondents categorised by course year, i.e., first year undergraduate, final year undergraduate, or taught postgraduate


Gender = For the purposes of, gender has been coded as male, female, prefer not to say, or gender non-binary since 2019. Due to the relatively very low numbers in the latter two categories compared to the large number in the former two categories, they are collapsed into one category named ‘Undeclared’. As the number of respondents in this category has made up less than 1% of the totaln since its introduction, it has been inadvisable to include them as a third category in the statistical analyses by gender and the very small number of respondents are therefore excluded from this section of analyses. They are included in all other analyses. It remains beneficial to capture these responses in the survey to enable collation of data over multiple fieldwork periods and potential future analysis.


Mode of study = respondents categorised by nature of enrolment. Five modes of study are noted - full-time, part-time, e-learning, distance education and in-service education. For the purposes of statistical analyses, part-time, e-learning, distance education and in-service education are collapsed into a category called "part-time/ remote" due to the relatively much smaller number of respondents. 


Programme type = respondents categorised by type of qualification being pursued, i.e., Undergraduate Certificate/ Diploma, Undergraduate Ordinary Degree, Undergraduate Honours Degree, Graduate Certificate/ Diploma, Masters Taught


Field of study = respondents categorised by broad ISCED field of study, i.e., Generic programmes and qualifications; Education; Arts and humanities; Social sciences, journalism, and information; Business, administration, and law; Natural sciences, mathematics, and statistics; Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs); Engineering, manufacturing, and construction; Agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and veterinary; Health and welfare; or Services


Country of domicile = respondents categorised by country of permanent address prior to entry to their programme of study, i.e., Irish domiciled students (students for whom Ireland, including Northern Ireland, is their country of permanent address) or internationally domiciled students (students for whom another country is their country of permanent address)


Effect size = any measure of the strength of a relationship between two variables. Large numbers of respondents make it more likely that any small difference will be statistically significant. Effect size attempts to measure real-world significance. The National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) proposed reference values for the interpretation of effect sizes from benchmark comparisons: Small = 0.100-0.299; Medium = 0.300-0.499; Large = 0.500-.699; Very Large = 0.700 or larger